Install WordPress on Ubuntu 18.04

As I said in my Home Page, I finally spent some time and migrated my ancient homepage to WordPress, the most popular web hosting platform (>60% of web sites).

However, quite contrarily to my expectations, the process is rather complicated. I went through quite a few hiccups, taking more than a couple of days, to reach today’s state. So I decide to write my experience down to hopefully save someone’s else pain.

For the Inpatients

  • Don’t follow the official instructions. It looks easy and simple, but WordPress is too old and does not seem to be easily updateable.
  • Don’t use WordPress docker container. A lot of trouble to get MySQL setup and connected. You still have a broken environment that many plug-in’s don’t work. In my case, I need to send emails (who don’t?), and that is VERY HARD to do with container.
  • I suppose Bitnami WordPress on AWS might be a fine choice. But I find more flexibility in just doing it myself, and it is actually not that hard, with a good instruction.
  • I ended up installing WordPress directory on Ubuntu 18.04
    • I install WordPress as a subdrectory of WWW root (wordpress/). This way I can migrate my original web site (in classic HTML) to WWW directory and co-exist with new shiny WordPress pages.
    • I chose Apache2 and MySQL. You can use Niginx and Mariabdb as well.

Installation

  • install required packages
apt update
apt install apache2 mysql php php-mysql
apt install php-curl php-gd php-mbstring php-xml php-xmlrpc php-soap php-intl php-zip php-gd
  • configure mysql
create database wordpress;
grant SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP,ALTER on wordpress.* to 'wp_admin'@'localhost' identified by 'somepasswordofyourown';
  • install wordpress
cd /tmp && wget https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz
tar xzf latest.tar.gz -C /var/www/html/
mkdir /var/www/html/wordpress/uploads
chown -R www-data.www-data /var/www/html/wordpress/
  • create /etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf file:
<Directory /var/www/html/wordpress>
    Options FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride Limit Options FileInfo
    DirectoryIndex index.php
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all
</Directory>
<Directory /var/www/html/wordpress/wp-content>
    Options FollowSymLinks
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all
</Directory>
  • enable WordPress in apache2
sudo apache2ctl configtest      # test syntax
sudo a2ensite wordpress
sudo a2enmod rewrite
sudo systemctl restart apache2
  • Initialize WordPress
    • Open a browser and go to “http://<server ip/name>/wordpress”
    • Enter site name, database name (“wordpress”), database user (“wp_admin”) and password.
    • You are done! Well, sort of. The rest is about WordPress itself, which is another topic.

References

How to Trio-Boot Linux/Windows

Background

As a typical programmer, my working environment is Linux (compiling, building and debugging).  Meanwhile my digital social life also depends on Windows (Skype, games, etc).  When you buy a new laptop, like I just did with Lenovo T490S, a big question is how to make both ends happy.

Common solution such as dual booting does not quite cut it because the context switching overhead is too big.  VM solution like VMware player or virtual box is another common solution, which gets pretty close.  You loose about 15% to 25% performance in Linux VM but you can access both of them at the same time.

I like to push the envelop a little bit further and implemented something what I call as Trio-boot:

    • You can dual-boot into either Linux or Windows host
    • Once you are in windows host OS, you can also use VMware Player to boot the *same* Linux as guest OS

By doing this it has the convenience of VM solution, while also preserves the performance and compatibility of native Linux host if needed.  Note whether you boot natively or start from VMware player, it is the same Linux environment, which is very important.

Steps At-a-Glance

  • Prepare Windows to leave disk space for Linux partition
  • Install Linux (e.g., Ubuntu 18.04) to the spare space and do dual booting
  • Boot into Windows and install VMWare Player 15
  • Create a 64bit Linux VM that includes a virtual disk (/dev/sda) and native Linux partition on the physical disk

Prepare Windows

  • Start “Create and format disk partitions” from “Control Panel”
  • Shrink the main windows partition to leave sufficient space for Linux
    • If the PC has been used for a while, you may find some non-movable files that prevent you from shrinking sufficient amount.  Google around for solutions.

Install Ubuntu 18.04

  • Download 64bit Ubuntu ISO image (https://ubuntu.com/download/desktop )
  • Use rufus to burn a Ubuntu 18.04 USB disk (16+GB) (https://rufus.ie/ )
  • Boot PC with Ubuntu 18.04 USB disk
  • Choose “Install Ubuntu” option when prompted
  • At “Install Type” page, choose “Something else” (See https://i.stack.imgur.com/KURnS.png)
  • Create a new partition to have ext4 fs type and mounted as root “/”
    • In my case it create a new partition called “nvme0n1p5”
  • Continue installation as usual

At the end you should be able to dual-boot Windows and Ubuntu

Start Ubuntu in VMware Player

The key of this step is to add 2 disks to the VM: 1 virtual disk which will install MBR and serves as the boot disk, and 1 physical partition that holds Linux which is already installed.  A theoretically simpler solution is to add both EFI partition and Linux to the VM and don’t use a virtual disk.  However, this approach does not always work.

  • Boot into Windows and install VMware Player
  • Create 64bit Linux VM with 0.1GB virtual disk
    • add a second hard disk, which is physical disk and select only Linux partition
    • I chose NVMe disk type to match my physical disk type, but that probably does not matter
  • Boot VM with Ubuntu CD image with “Try Ubuntu” option
  • Change root to native Linux partition
    • mount /dev/nvme0n1p5 /mnt
    • mount -B /sys /mnt/sys
    • mount -B /proc /mnt/proc
    • mount -B /dev /mnt/dev
    • chroot /mnt
    • fdsik -l   # it should show /sda/ as well as the nvme0n1 disk partitions
  • remove auto mount of EFI partition (since it is not available in VM enviroment of Linux)
    • vi /etc/fstab
    • add “#” to the line that contains “/boot/efi”
  • prepare /dev/sda
    • fdisk /dev/sda
    • create a new primary partition
      • Note by default it will initialize the disk as a DOS-type disk with MBR boot.  Keep this setting.
  • Install grub on /dev/sda, grub-install /dev/sda
  • power off VM; disconnect CD-ROM; restart VM, and choose Ubuntu as startup OS
  • (optional) sudo apt install open-vm-tools open-vm-tools-desktop
    • to mount hgfs automatically, create /etc/rc.local file with the following code
#!/bin/bashv
mhgfs-fuse .host:/ /mnt/hgfs/ -o allow_other -o uid=1000
  • restart VM

TIPS

  • always shut down VM completely before rebooting into Linux natively.  Otherwise you will be left with some inconsistent harddisk state.

Additional notes on 9/22, 2019

In my original settings, computer will boot from grub2, where I can choose to start windows or ubuntu.  Quite a few times, for some unknown reasons, the computer boot Ubuntu straight, which can cause some disasters if your windows’ vmplayer is playing the same ubuntu image and windows went hibernation.

To overcome this, I finally settled on the following:

  • Enter BIOS and set windows boot manager as the default startup OS.
    • I need to press ENTER + F12 on my Dell machine in order to boot Ubuntu natively
  • in Windows vmplayer, I edit grub.cfg and remove windows so that vmplayer would always boot up Ubuntu